20 August 2008

History of Ballpoint Pens

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A Hungarian journalist named Laszlo Biro invented the first ballpoint pen in 1938. Biro had noticed that the type of ink used in newspaper printing dried quickly, leaving the paper dry and smudge-free. He decided to create a pen using the same type of ink. The thicker ink would not flow from a regular pen nib and Biro had to devise a new type of point. He did so by fitting his pen with a tiny ball bearing in its tip. As the pen moved along the paper, the ball rotated picking up ink from the ink cartridge and leaving it on the paper. This principle of the ballpoint pen actually dates back to an 1888 patent owned by John J. Loud for a product to mark leather. However, this patent was commercially unexploited. Laszlo Biro first patented his pen in 1938, and applied for a fresh patent in Argentina on June 10, 1943. (Laszlo Biro and his brother Georg Biro emigrated to Argentina in 1940.) The British Government bought the licensing rights to this patent for the war effort. The British Royal Air Force needed a new type of pen, one that would not leak at higher altitudes in fighter planes as the fountain pen did. Their successful performance for the Air Force brought the Biro pens into the limelight. Laszlo Biro had neglected to get a U.S. patent for his pen and so even with the ending of World War II, another battle was just beginning...


Historical Outline - The Battle of Ballpoint Pens
The first pen-writing instrument was the quill pen dipped into dark paint. There became a need to lengthen the time between dips, eliminate splatter, eliminate smearing and improve pen handling.

* Early 1800s: The first designs for pens that could hold their own ink patented.

* 1884: L.E. Waterman, a New York City insurance salesman, designed the first workable fountain pen, the fountain pen becomes the predominant writing instrument for the next sixty years. Four fountain pen manufactures dominate the market: Parker, Sheaffer, Waterman and Wahl-Eversharp.

* 1938: Invention of a ballpoint pen by two Hungarian inventors, Laszlo Biro and George Biro. The brothers both worked on the pen and applied for patents in 1938 and 1940. The new-formed Eterpen Company in Argentina commercialized the Biro pen. The press hailed the success of this writing tool because it could write for a year without refilling.

* May 1945: Eversharp Co. teams up with Eberhard-Faber to acquire the exclusive rights to Biro Pens of Argentina. The pen re-branded the “Eversharp CA” which stood for Capillary Action. Released to the press months in advance of public sales.

* June, 1945: Less than a month after Eversharp/Eberhard close the deal with Eterpen, Chicago businessman, Milton Reynolds visits Buenos Aires. While in a store, he sees the Biro pen and recognizes the pen’s sales potential. He buys a few pens as samples. Reynolds returns to America and starts the Reynolds International Pen Company, ignoring Eversharp’s patent rights.

* October 29, 1945: Reynolds copies the product in four months and sells his product Reynold's Rocket at Gimbel’s department store in New York City. Reynolds’ imitation beats Eversharp to market. Reynolds’ pen is immediately successful: Priced at $12.50, $100,000 worth sold the first day on the market.

* December, 1945: Britain was not far behind with the first ballpoint pens available to the public sold at Christmas by the Miles-Martin Pen Company.


The Ballpoint Pen Becomes a Fad

Ballpoint pens guaranteed to write for two years without refilling, claimed to be smear proof. Reynolds advertised it as the pen "to write under water." Eversharp sued Reynolds for copying the design it had acquired legally. The previous 1888 patent by John Loud would have invalidated everyone's claims. However, no one knew that at the time. Sales skyrocketed for both competitors. Nevertheless, the Reynolds’ pen leaked, skipped and often failed to write. Eversharp’s pen did not live up to its own advertisements. A very high volume of pen returns occurred for both Eversharp and Reynolds. The ballpoint pen fad ended - due to consumer unhappiness.

* 1948: Frequent price wars, poor quality products, and heavy advertising costs hurt each side. Sales did a nosedive. The original asking price of $12.50 dropped to less than 50 cents per pen.

* 1950: The French Baron called Bich, drops the h and starts BIC and starts selling pens.

* 1951: The ballpoint pen dies a consumer death. Fountain pens are number one again. Reynolds folds.

* January, 1954: Parker Pens introduces its first ballpoint pen, the Jotter. The Jotter wrote five times longer than the Eversharp or Reynolds pens. It had a variety of point sizes, a rotating cartridge and large-capacity ink refills. Best of all, it worked. Parker sold 3.5 million Jotters @ $2.95 to $8.75 in less then one year.


The Ballpoint Pen Battle is Won
* 1957: Parker introduces the tungsten carbide textured ball bearing in their ballpoint pens. Eversharp was in deep financial trouble and tried to switch back to selling fountain pens. Eversharp sold its pen division to Parker Pens and Eversharp's assets finally liquidated in the 1960’s.

* Late 1950's: BIC ® held 70 percent of European market.

* 1958: BIC buys 60 percent of the New York based Waterman Pens.

* 1960: BIC owns 100 percent of Waterman Pens. BIC sells ballpoint pens in U.S. for 29 - 69 cents.


The Ballpoint Pen War is Won

BIC ® dominates the market. Parker, Sheaffer and Waterman, capture the smaller upscale markets of fountain pens and expensive ballpoints.

* Today: The highly popular modern version of Laszlo Biro's pen, the BIC Crystal, has a daily world wide sales figure of 14,000,000 pieces. Biro is still the generic name used for the ballpoint pen in most of the world. The Biro pens used by the British Air Force in W.W.II worked. Parker black ballpoint pens will produce more than 28,000 linear feet of writing -- more than five miles, before running out of ink.

Source: http://inventors.about.com

The History Waterman Pen and Fountain Pen

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Lewis Waterman patented the first practical fountain pen in 1884. Writing instruments designed to carry their own supply of ink had existed in principle for over one hundred years before Waterman's patent. For example, the oldest known fountain pen that has survived today was designed by a Frenchmen named M. Bion and dated 1702. Peregrin Williamson, a Baltimore shoemaker, received the first American patent for a pen in 1809. John Scheffer received a British patent in 1819 for his half quill, half metal pen that he attempted to mass manufacture. John Jacob Parker patented the first self-filling fountain pen in 1831. However, early fountain pen models were plagued by ink spills and other failures that left them impractical and hard to sell.

The fountain pen's design came after a thousand years of using quill-pens. Early inventors observed the apparent natural ink reserve found in the hollow channel of a bird's feather and tried to produce a similar effect, with a man-made pen that would hold more ink and not require constant dipping into the ink well. However, a feather is not a pen, only a natural object modified to suit man's needs. Filling a long thin reservoir made of hard rubber with ink and sticking a metal 'nib' at the bottom was not enough to produce a smooth writing instrument. Lewis Waterman, an insurance salesman, was inspired to improve the early fountain pen designs after destroying a valuable sales contract with leaky-pen ink. Lewis Waterman's idea was to add an air hole in the nib and three grooves inside the feed mechanism.

A mechanism is composed of three main parts. The nib, which has the contact with the paper. The feed or black part under the nib controls the ink flow from the reservoir to the nib. The round barrel that holds the nib and feed on the writing end protects the ink reservoir internally (this is the part that you grip while writing).

All pens contain an internal reservoir for ink. The different ways that reservoirs filled proved to be one of the most competitive areas in the pen industry. The earliest 19th century pens used an eyedropper; by 1915, most pens had switched to having a self-filling soft and flexible rubber sac as an ink reservoir. To refill these pens, the reservoirs were squeezed flat by an internal plate, then the pen's nib was inserted into a bottle of ink and the pressure on the internal plate was released so that the ink sac would fill up drawing in a fresh supply of ink.

Several different patents issued for the self-filling fountain pen design:

* The Button Filler: Patented in 1905 and first offered by the Parker Pen Co. in 1913 as an alternative to the eyedropper method. An external button connected to the internal pressure plate that flattened the ink sac when pressed.

* Lever Filler: Walter Sheaffer patented the lever filler in 1908. The W.A. Sheaffer Pen Company of Fort Madison, Iowa introduced it in 1912. An external lever depressed the flexible ink sac. The lever fitted flush with the barrel of the pen when it was not in use. The lever filler became the winning design for the next forty years, the button filler coming in second.

* Click Filler: First called the crescent filler, Roy Conklin of Toledo commercially produced the first one. A later design by Parker Pen Co. used the name click filler. When two protruding tabs on the outside of the pen pressed, the ink sac deflated. The tabs would make a clicking sound when the sac was full.

* Matchstick Filler: Introduced around 1910 by the Weidlich Company. A small rod mounted on the pen or a common matchstick depressed the internal pressure plate through a hole in the side of the barrel.

* Coin Filler: Developed by Lewis Waterman in an attempt to compete with the winning lever filler patent belonging to Sheaffer. A slot in the barrel of the pen enabled a coin to deflate the internal pressure plate, a similar idea to the matchstick filler.

There are nine standard nib-sizes, with three different nib-tip cuts: straight, oblique and italic. The early inks caused steel nibs to quickly corrode and gold nibs held up to the corrosion. Iridium used on the very tip of the nib replaced gold because gold was too soft. Most owners had their initials engraved on the clip. It took about four months to break in a new writing instrument since the nib was designed to flex as pressure was put on it (allowing the writer to vary the width of the writing lines) each nib wore down accommodating to each owner's own writing style. People did not tend to loan their fountain pens to anyone for that reason.

The ink cartridge introduced around 1950 was a disposable, pre-filled plastic or glass cartridges designed for clean and easy insertion. They were an immediate success. The introduction of the ballpoints, however, overshadowed the invention of the cartridge and dried up business for the fountain pen industry. Fountain pens sell today as a classic writing instrument and the original pens have become very hot collectibles.


Who is Lewis Waterman

Lewis Waterman
Residence - 265 Macon Street, Brooklyn, New York City
Born - Decatur, Otsego County, N.Y. - 1837
Death - 1901

Invented the capillary feed in fountain pens - now universally used - that allows for even ink flow. Though necessity may be the mother of invention, perhaps it is frustration that fuels the fire; or so it seemed for Lewis Waterman. In 1883, Lewis Waterman was an insurance broker in New York City, getting ready to sign one of his hottest contracts. In honor of the occasion, Lewis Waterman bought a new fountain pen that he considered far more stylish than a cumbersome dip pen and ink well. With the contract on the table and the pen in the client’s hand, the pen refused to write, and actually leaked onto the precious document. Horrified, Lewis Waterman raced back to his office for another contract, but a competing broker had closed the deal.

Determined to never again suffer such humiliation, Waterman began to make fountain pens in his brother’s workshop. Lewis Waterman used the capillarity principle which allowed air to induce a steady and even flow of ink. He christened his pen "the Regular," decorated it with wood accents, and obtained a patent for it in 1884. In his first year of operation, Waterman sold his hand-made pens out of the back of a cigar shop. He guaranteed the pens for five years and advertised in a trendy magazine, The Review of Review. The orders filtered in.

By 1899, Lewis Waterman opened a factory in Montreal and was offering a variety of designs. In 1901, upon Waterman’s death, his nephew, Frank D. Waterman took the business overseas and increased sales to 350,000 pens per year. The Treaty of Versailles was signed using a solid gold Waterman pen, a far cry from the day Lewis Waterman lost his important contract due to a leaky fountain pen.

Lewis Edson Waterman is commonly cited as being the inventor of the first practical fountain pen, just as Henry Ford is often supposed to be the inventor of the automobile. Neither supposition is completely accurate; however, it is certainly true that Waterman was the first big international success among fountain pen makers.

The story of how Waterman invented the multi-channel feed back in the 1870s is a typical stirring tale of Yankee Ingenuity. As the tale is told, Waterman (an insurance salesman at the time) loaned a new reservoir pen he had bought to a client to sign a policy; unfortunately, the pen (as was typical of these early examples) refused to do anything but blot the contract. The client, taking all this as an ill omen, nixed the deal.

Retiring to his brother's upstate New York farm for some serious whittling, Waterman soon came up with his feed, which he fitted to a pen made by his brother from a wagon wheel spoke. The pen worked well enough to encourage him to begin manufacturing and selling them on a small scale beginning in the early 1880s. He was granted patents on his innovations (which also included a process for machining decorative chasing onto hard rubber pen barrels) in 1883, and incorporated in 1888.

Thanks to heavy investment in magazine advertisements, Waterman was soon nationally and internationally recognized as a leader in the young industry.


Waterman's globe trademark was no idle boast; the company enjoyed a very large export trade, and by the 1920s had subsidiaries in Canada, France, and the U.K. The company's products earned a gold medal at the Paris Exposition in 1900 (which also saw the appearance of the first electric escalator) , a year before L. E. Waterman's death.

Waterman pens set the pace for penmakers up through World War I, and were extensively copied, both directly and indirectly, despite any number of patents on the Waterman innovations. The high point of Waterman's popularity was probably the decade of the 1920s, during which they offered a huge variety of models and sizes.

In the 1930s, having been slow to respond to technical and stylistic innovations by the competition, Waterman began to lose ground. During this time, they sold the Patrician, one of the rarest and most avidly-sought of vintage U.S. pens (examples in good condition can fetch $1,500 or more). The Hundred-Year models from the 1930s and 40s are also very expensive and difficult to find. During the later '40s and the '50s, the company really ran out of gas, and the remains of the U.S. Waterman operations were finally sold to Bic in 1959, forming the basis of that French firm's American production facilities.

The fact that the Waterman name persists to this day can also be attributed to the French. In 1926, a Waterman rep by the name of Jules Fagard established a French subsidiary called JiF-Waterman; ten years later, they would invent the first practical disposable ink cartridge (originally a glass capsule). JiF-Waterman entered the post-World-War-II era in pretty good shape, thanks to astute management by Fagard and his widow Elsa; when the parent company finally gave up the ghost, the French subsidiary carried on the name with further distinguished products. Waterman is still based in France, but has been back under American ownership (by the toiletries giant Gilette) for a few years now.

Source: http://inventors.about.com

17 August 2008

Cheap Car Finance: Derive Reality Of Your Dream Car Drive

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Life is on the wheel nowadays. Finance companies have made it viable almost for everyone to avail the means of transportation one like. In this prospect, money market has come up with the concept of cheap car finance. With the concept, availing car of one’s dream has become very easy and convenient.

There is a huge amount of finance involved in buying a car. Therefore, financing becomes an inevitable for most of the potential buyers. While making a search for the cheapest possible car finance, you need to ensure that you borrow the money that suits your repayment capability.

You can avail cheap vehicle finance on pledging your home or any property for collateral. Rate of interest on such a secured loan is kept low. The very car you wish to buy can also serve the purpose of collateral. You can borrow greater amount of finance through these loans. If you need only smaller loan, then it can be availed through the unsecured option, without collateral. Interest rate will be a little higher, but it can be lowered for the deserving customers, who have a clean record of making timely payments.

Of course, finance is available at low rate of interest. But the rate will be lower for those people only, who have a good credit record. Such a class of borrowers carries almost no risks for the financial institutions.

However, individuals having credit problems like late payments, arrears and defaults in your name, they too can get privilege of securing cheap car finance. There are ways to ensure low rate of interest on the finance is to make down payment of high amounts. Such a down payment can cut almost all the risks for the finance companies. Therefore, if your credit history has deformities then a good amount of down payment not only ensures the finance approval, but it comes at low rate also. They will have to shop around a little to cull out the best possible finance option for them. Else, they apply for finance only after they show the credit improvements in their reports.

You can fulfill your dream by financing the car you like. Cheap car finance can do it for you. With the help, you finance your dream and make it a cherish reality.

Article Source: http://www.articlesnatch.com

About the Author:
Simon Tauffel has been associated with Cheap Car Finance. Having completed his Masters in Finance from Cranfield School of Management. He provide useful advice through his articles that have been found very useful. To find more about Cheap Car Finance, car finance, used car finance, car finance loan, bad credit car finance visit http://www.cheapcarfinance.org.uk/





Can we get guaranteed car finance? Several car dealers claimed they can give that.... are you sure?

15 August 2008

Psoriasis Treatment

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There is no cure for psoriasis. However, treatment is usually effective and will control the condition by clearing or reducing the patches of psoriasis. Most people with psoriasis can be treated by their GP. Your GP may refer you to a dermatologist (skin specialist) and their team based in a hospital if symptoms are particularly severe or have not responded well to previous treatments.

Treatments are based on the type and severity of your psoriasis and the area of the skin affected. Your GP will probably start with a mild treatment - such as topical creams - and then move on to stronger treatments if necessary.

There is a wide range of treatment options for psoriasis but identifying what treatment is most effective can be difficult. You should talk to your GP if you feel a treatment is not working, or you are experiencing uncomfortable side effects.

Treatments fall into three categories:

* topical - creams and ointments are applied to your skin,
* phototherapy - your skin is exposed to certain types of light, and
* oral and injected medication - medicine is used to reduce the production of your skin cells.

Different types of treatment are often used in combination.
Topical treatments

Topical treatments are creams and ointments you apply to the affected areas of your skin. They are used to treat mild to moderate psoriasis. Topical psoriasis treatments include:

* Topical corticosteroids - these are the most commonly used medicines for treating mild to moderate psoriasis. The treatment works by slowing the production of skin cells; this reduces the inflammation and relieves the symptoms of itching. Topical corticosteroids range in strength from mild to very strong. Stronger topical corticosteroids are normally only used on small areas of your skin or on particularly thick patches. You should only use topical corticosteroids when instructed by your GP. Over-use can lead to you developing a tolerance to the cream and it could damage your skin.

* Vitamin D analogues - the Vitamin D in the cream has a suppressing effect on your immune system, slowing the production of skin cells. The most widely used Vitamin D analogue is calcipotriol, which is used to treat mild to moderate psoriasis. Calcipotriol has no side effects, provided you do not use more than the amount recommended by your GP.

* Dithranol - this has been used for over 50 years in the treatment of plaque psoriasis. It is effective in suppressing the production of skin cells and has no side effects. However, it is typically only used as a short-term treatment under hospital supervision, as it stains everything it comes into contact with including your skin. It is normally only applied to your skin for five minutes before being washed off to reduce the risk of staining your skin. Dithranol is often used in combination with phototherapy.

* Tazarotene - this cream contains a chemical similar to Vitamin A - a retnoid - this slows the production of skin cells. It is used in the treatment of moderate plaque psoriasis. The most common side effect is skin irritation. Tazarotene can cause birth defects so it should be strictly avoided during pregnancy or if breastfeeding. It is not recommended for children or teenagers.

* Coal tar - this is a thick heavy oil and is probably the oldest treatment for psoriasis. How it works is not exactly known, but it reduces scales, inflammation and itchiness. Coal tar does cause staining of clothes and bedding but it has a very strong smell. It is often used in combination with phototherapy.


Phototherapy

Phototherapy uses natural and artificial light to treat psoriasis.

* Sunlight - brief, daily exposure to small amounts of sunlight can improve symptoms, but too much sun can cause a worsening of your condition and cause skin damage. Consult with your GP about the safest way to make use of the sun.

* UVB phototherapy - this uses a wavelength of light that is invisible to human eyes - ultraviolet B light. The light slows down the production of skin cells and is an effective treatment against guttate or plaque psoriasis that has not responded to a topical procedure. Treatment takes place at a hospital under the supervision of a dermatologist. You will normally need between 10 and 30 sessions.

* Psoralean plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) - for this treatment, you will first be given a tablet called psoralean. This makes your skin more sensitive to light. Your skin is then exposed to a wavelength of light called ultraviolet A. This light penetrates your skin more deeply than ultraviolet B light. This treatment may be used if you have severe psoriasis that have not responded to other treatment. Common side effects of the treatment include nausea, headaches, burning and itchiness. Long-term use of this treatment is not encouraged as it can increase your risk of developing skin cancer.

* Combination light therapy - combining phototherapy with other treatments often increases the effectiveness of phototherapy. Some doctors use UVB phototherapy in combination with coal tar, as the coal tar makes the skin more receptive to light. Combining UVB phototherapy with Dithranol cream has also proved effective.


Oral and injected medication

You will normally only be prescribed tablets or injections if your psoriasis is severe and is resistant to other treatments. Oral medications can be very effective in treating psoriasis but they all have potentially seriously side effects - so they are only used for short periods of time.

* Methotrexate - methotrexate is a medicine that decreases the production of skin cells and suppresses inflammation. It is useful in treating pustular psoriasis, psoriatic erythoderma and extensive plaque psoriasis. It has no short-term side effects, but long-term use can cause serious liver damage. People who have previous liver disease should not take methotrexate. You should not drink any alcohol when taking methotrexate. Methotrexate can cause serious birth defects. Women should take adequate contraceptive precautions to avoid falling pregnant during therapy and for three months afterwards. Methotrexate can affect how sperm cells develop, so men should avoid fathering a child during therapy and for three weeks afterwards.

* Aciterin - aciterin is an oral retnoid that reduces the production of skin cells. It is used to treat severe psoriasis that has not responded to other treatments. It has a wide range of side effects including dryness and cracking of the lips, dryness of the nasal passages, loss of hair, and in rarer cases, hepatitis. Acitretin causes serious birth defects, and women should avoid pregnancy during treatment, and for two years after.

* Ciclosporin - ciclosporin is an immunosuppressant - a medicine that suppresses your immune system. It has proved effective in the treatment of all types of psoriasis, but as it stops your immune system from working normally, it can make you more at risk from infection. Ciclosporin also increases your chances of kidney disease and high blood pressure.

All of the oral and injected medicines for psoriasis come with both benefits and risks. Before starting a treatment of oral medication, your GP or dermatologist should clearly explain the benefits and risks of the treatment, both verbally and in writing.

Source: http://www.nhsdirect.nhs.uk


Scalp Psoriasis

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Scalp psoriasis is a subtype of psoriasis manifesting on the hair covered area of the head. It may be severe or mild. It can affect the entire scalp or just certain areas. The symptoms are visible, thick, silvery layers of dead skin cells, soreness of the scalp, bleeding and a lot of itching, and a feeling of tightness of the scalp if large areas are covered. It occurs in patients that have an attack on the immune system, stress, or hormonal changes. Stress is a contributing factor of this disease, like all types of psoriasis. There are about three percent of Americans diagnosed with psoriasis. Scalp psoriasis is not contagious,-it is considered to be a hereditary disease. The affected areas are called plaques and may be localized to a specific part of the scalp or be spread all over.


Scratching the area can make the disease worse. It causes flaking of the skin much like dandruff and can be very embarrassing to the patient. Proper treatment of the scalp can help to manage it. The doctor prescribes steroid liniments, among other medicines. The pain caused by the disease can become very uncomfortable and the itching unbearable.

This disease can cause other problems with relationships, self-esteem and self-confidence. Constant itching and scratching is not very attractive to some of the people around you, and flaking and layers of “white snow” on the jacket is hard to handle for the victim. It can damage the self-perception because one gets very self-conscious of whether someone is watching your scratching or not, or even worse, the dandruff. It is disconcerting to imagine that this disease has no cure and may be a life long illness. However, the hope that you have is that there are treatments to manage the disease and help you to live a normal life.


Treatment

There are several different types of treatment that is accessible to patients of scalp psoriasis. A doctor’s visit may allow the patient to get prescription medication to assist in the healing of the scalp. However, medication could also be some kind of natural medicine depending on the severity of the disease. See also treatment for psoriasis by clicking here.

There are over the counter drugs that can help with treating the patient’s scalp psoriasis. The patient has to be wise in this decision. The pharmacist may be able to help, but it is better to see a doctor about this before taking that route. An anti-inflammatory medication (steroid liniment) may be suggested by the physician, which will help to reduce any itching and inflammation.

Treatments for scalp psoriasis may need to be continued over time to see the best results. Make sure you wash the hair regularly with specific shampoos that are made especially for scalp psoriasis disease.

A coal tar shampoo helps to remove the scaling from the scalp. After shampoo, add a cortisone lotion to the scalp. Keep up this routine until improvements are recognized. Brush and comb the hair on a regular basis to remove any scaling.

You can also use natural remedies and essential oils (see link above) as alternative ways to treat the disease. You can also fix chamomile tea, cool it and use as a hair rinse. Neem oil, eucalyptus oil and lavender are good natural products for healing the disease. Neem oil will help to stop the itching and the lavender acts as a soothing agent and stimulates hair growth. It also has anti itch properties.

Use natural sulphate free shampoos with wheat germ or jojoba oils. This will help to moisturize and keep the scalp healthy.

Mix water with tamanu oil, pour into a spray bottle and put on scalp. Or you can just massage the tamanu oil into the scalp drop by drop. You may also add the oil to your shampoo or conditioner.

Spending thirty minutes under a UVB light is a way to speed up the healing process, if the rays find access to the scalp skin .

There are many more remedies for scalp psoriasis. You have to find the one that works best for you. Hair hygiene is the ultimate plan of action to keep scalp healthy. If the condition persists, you should seek the help of a doctor.

Regular treatment with natural remedies should heal the condition. A combination of the herbal remedy, the essential oil and tamanu oil will do the trick.

Source: http://www.naturalskinrepair.com



Do babies get psoriasis?

It is exceedingly rare for babies to have psoriasis particularly if there is no history in the family. Rashes in the nappy area may be psoriasis or may be a straightforward nappy rash. Psoriasis in the nappy area will look red and shiny with little scaling, and it will be very clearly demarcated i.e. it will be clear where the psoriasis stops and regular skin begins.


How does psoriasis affect children?

The most common form of psoriasis in children is plaque psoriasis affecting the elbows, knees and lower back. The scalp can also be involved in children, along with the face and flexures (for example, the groin, armpit and behind the knees).
Guttate psoriasis is also more common in childhood and teenage years. This form of psoriasis often follows a throat infection and appears as a generalised rash of small, scaly patches up to 1cm in diameter. The patches often affect the trunk, limbs and occasionally scalp. Guttate psoriasis generally clears well, but this may take several weeks or months.


Why has my child got psoriasis?

Psoriasis is not yet a fully understood condition, however, around 30% of people with psoriasis have a family history of the condition, and certain genes have been identified as being linked to psoriasis. A trigger is still required for psoriasis to develop, regardless of a family link. Triggers include injury to the skin (a simple scratch or insect bite), the streptococcal sore throat, stress and emotional upset and puberty.


What treatments are available for children?

Moisturisers and emollients are vital in the treatment of psoriasis – they will help soothe, smooth and hydrate your child’s skin in order to keep it in good condition and help the active treatment creams and ointments work more effectively. There are lots of emollients and moisturisers to choose, from oils to put in the bath, to creams, lotions and ointments to put directly onto the skin. For some children, moisturisers and emollients are all they will require to manage their psoriasis. Other more active creams and ointments include coal tar based applications, vitamin D analogues, topical steroid treatments and dithranol.
If your child’s psoriasis becomes more severe, they may be referred to a dermatologist. Dermatologists are able to offer other stronger forms of treatment such as ultraviolet light (UV) therapy and tablets


Immunisations

All the usual immunisation procedures may be safely given but it is worth remembering that a patch of psoriasis may come up at any site where the skin has been injured e.g. following immunisation with BCG.


Helpful Hints

· Children should lead as normal a life as possible – psoriasis is only a part of who they are.

· Parents and children may have different views about treatments – it is important to talk this through and respect their views.

· Cotton clothing, underwear and bedding may be more comfortable for your child during a psoriasis flare.

· Inform your child’s teacher in case they need time off school to attend doctors appointments, or help in explaining the condition to their classmates – that it is not contagious.

· Establish a treatment routine, but don’t let it rule your or your child’s life.

· Have a small pot of moisturiser that will fit in a handbag or school bag to use when away from home – this can help soothe itchy skin that may be bothersome in the daytime.

Source: http://www.psoriasis-association.org.uk

Shampoo

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Shampoo is a hair care product used for the removal of oils, dirt, skin particles, dandruff, environmental pollutants and other contaminant particles that gradually build up in hair. The goal is to remove the unwanted build-up without stripping out so much as to make hair unmanageable.

Shampoo, when lathered with water, is a surfactant, which, while cleaning the hair and scalp, can remove the natural oils (sebum) which lubricate the hair shaft.

Shampooing is frequently followed by conditioners which increase the ease of combing and styling.


History

People used to use regular soap to wash their hair.[1] However, the dull film soap left on the hair made it uncomfortable, irritating, and unhealthy looking. According to Shobhana, the word shampoo in English usage dates back to 1762, with the meaning "to massage". The word was a loan from Anglo-Indian shampoo, in turn from Hindi chāmpo , imperative of chāmpnā , "to smear, knead the muscles, massage". It itself comes from Sanskrit/Hindi word "champā" , the flowers of the plant Michelia champaca which have traditionally been used to make fragrant hair-oil.

The term and service was introduced by a Bengali entrepreneur Sake Dean Mahomed, who opened a shampooing bath known as 'Mahomed's Indian Vapour Baths' in Brighton, England in 1759. His baths were like Turkish baths where clients received an Indian treatment of champi (shampooing) or therapeutic massage. His service was appreciated; he received the high accolade of being appointed ‘Shampooing Surgeon’ to both George IV and William IV.

During the early stages of shampoo, English hair stylists boiled shaved soap in water and added herbs to give the hair shine and fragrance. Kasey Hebert was the first known maker of shampoo, and the origin is currently attributed to him.

Originally, soap and shampoo were very similar products; both containing surfactants, a type of detergent. Modern shampoo as it is known today was first introduced in the 1930s with Drene, the first synthetic (non-soap) shampoo.[2]

From ancient times to this day, Indians have been using different formulations of shampoos using herbs like neem, shikakai or soapnut, henna, bael, brahmi, fenugreek, buttermilk, amla, aloe, and almond in combination with some aromatic components like sandalwood, jasmine, turmeric, rose, and musk.


How shampoo works ?

Shampoo cleans by stripping sebum from the hair. Sebum is an oil secreted by hair follicles that is readily absorbed by the strands of hair, and forms a protective layer. Sebum protects the protein structure of hair from damage, but this protection comes at a cost. It tends to collect dirt, styling products and scalp flakes. Surfactants strip the sebum from the hair shafts and thereby remove the dirt attached to it.

While both soaps and shampoos contain surfactants, soap bonds to oils with such affinity that it removes too much if used on hair. Shampoo uses a different class of surfactants balanced to avoid removing too much oil from the hair.

The chemical mechanisms that underlie hair cleansing are similar to that of traditional soap. Undamaged hair has a hydrophobic surface to which skin lipids such as sebum stick, but water is initially repelled. The lipids do not come off easily when the hair is rinsed with plain water. The anionic surfactants substantially reduce the interfacial surface tension and allow for the removal of the sebum from the hair shaft. The non-polar oily materials on the hair shaft are solubilised into the surfactant micelle structures of the shampoo and are removed during rinsing. There is also considerable removal through a surfactant and oil "roll up" effect.


Specialized shampoos

Dandruff

Cosmetic companies have developed shampoos specifically for those who have dandruff. These contain fungicides such as ketoconazole, zinc pyrithione and selenium sulfide which reduce loose dander by killing Malassezia furfur. Coal tar and salicylate derivatives are often used as well.

All-natural

Some companies use "all-natural," "organic," "botanical," or "plant-derived" ingredients (such as plant extracts or oils), combining these additions with one or more typical surfactants. The effectiveness of these organic ingredients is disputed.

Alternative shampoos, sometimes marketed as SLS-free, claim to have fewer harsh chemicals - typically none from the sulfate family. They are sometimes claimed to be gentler on human hair.

Baby

Shampoo for infants and young children is formulated so that it is less irritating and usually less prone to produce a stinging or burning sensation if it were to get into the eyes. This is accomplished by one or more of the following formulation strategies:

1. dilution, in case product comes in contact with eyes after running off the top of the head with minimal further dilution;
2. adjusting pH to that of non-stress tears, approximately 7, which may be a higher pH than that of shampoos which are pH adjusted for skin or hair effects, and lower than that of shampoo made of soap;
3. use of surfactants which, alone or in combination, are less irritating than those used in other shampoos;
4. use of nonionic surfactants of the form of polyethoxylated synthetic glycolipids and/or polyethoxylated synthetic monoglycerides, which surfactants counteract the eye sting of other surfactants without producing the anesthetizing effect of alkyl polyethoxylates or alkylphenol polyethoxylates.

The distinction in 4 above does not completely surmount controversy over the use of shampoo ingredients to mitigate eye sting produced by other ingredients, or of use of the products so formulated.

The considerations in 3 and 4 frequently result in a much greater multiplicity of surfactants being used in individual baby shampoos than in other shampoos, and the detergency and/or foaming of such products may be compromised thereby. The monoanionic sulfonated surfactants and viscosity-increasing or foam stabilizing alkanolamides seen so frequently in other shampoos are much less common in the better baby shampoos.

Animal

Shampoo for animals (such as for dogs or cats) should be formulated especially for them, as their skin has fewer cell layers than human skin. Cats' skin is 2-3 cell layers thick, while dogs' skin is 3-5 layers. Human skin, by contrast, is 10-15 cell layers thick. This is a clear example of why one should never use even something as mild as baby shampoo on a cat, dog, or other pet.

Shampoo intended for animals may contain insecticides or other medications for treatment of skin conditions or parasite infestations such as fleas or mange. These must never be used on humans. It is equally important to note that while some human shampoos may be harmful when used on animals, any haircare products that contain active ingredients/drugs (such as zinc in antidandruff shampoos) are potentially toxic when ingested by animals. Special care must be taken not to use those products on pets. Cats are at particular risk due to their instinctive method of grooming their fur with their tongues.

Solid

Solid shampoos or shampoo bars use as their surfactants soaps and/or other surfactants conveniently formulated as solids. They have the advantage of being spill-proof, and the disadvantage of being slowly applied, needing to be dissolved in use.

Jelly/Gel

Stiff, non-pourable clear gels to be squeezed from a tube were once popular forms of shampoo, and can be produced by increasing a shampoo's viscosity. This type of shampoo cannnot be spilled, but unlike a solid, it can still be lost down the drain by sliding off wet skin or hair. Soap jelly was formely made at home by dissolving sodium soap in hot water before being used for shampooing or other purposes, to avoid the problem of slow application of solids noted above.

Paste/cream

Shampoos in the form of pastes or creams were formerly marketed in jars or tubes. The contents were wet but not completely dissolved. They would apply faster than solids and dissolve quickly. Jar contents were prone to contamination by users and hence had to be very well preserved.

Dry shampoo

Powdered shampoos are designed to work without water. They are typically based on powders such as starch or talc, and are intended to absorb excess sebum from the hair before being brushed out.

Source: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Magnetic jewelry clasp

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Magnetic jewelry clasp - Never Struggle With Your Jewelry Again

by AHMAD MUNAWWAR on http://www.amazines.com

Would like to overcome trouble securing your necklace, bracelet or chain? Magnetic Jewelry Clasp will change the way standard necklace, bracelet or chain clasp to one with a magnetic clasp, making it simple and easy to close.

Magnetic jewelry clasp is great and the best of quality and it does not require a jeweler to install. With magnetic clasp, it can be easily connecting the magnetic converter clasp to any necklace or bracelet that has a traditional claw and loop.

This innovative new jewelry accessory that makes wearing any piece of jewelry a snap! The Magnetic Jewelry Clasp has been very helpful for those with:-

* Arthritis, * Fibromyalgia, * Carpal tunnel or any other hand condition. * It is also great for those with trouble attaching small jewelry clasps.

Eventhough the magnetic adapter can be a bit challenging for those with weakened hand conditions, but once it's on, it makes putting on and removing the jewelry easy and simple.

One thing that sets Clever Clasp away from other magnetic jewelry clasp is the strength of the magnets and the durability of the clasp. It have been very durable.

With certain jewelry, particularly women's jewelry, there is an inherent conflict between the need to make the clasp easy to facilitate so that the wearer can readily attach and detach the free ends of the bracelet or necklace, and the need to make the clasp very secure so that it does not readily and inadvertently become unattached and risk the potential loss of the jewelry.

Thus, even young people, having a great deal of dexterity, find it difficult to fasten necklaces behind their necks or fasten most bracelets which, by their nature, must be fastened with the use of only one hand. This problem is compounded many fold in the case of older people or the many millions of people who suffer from even mild cases of arthritis or similar afflictions that limit the use of the hands.

Putting on jewelry shouldn't be an impossible chore. Make it easier with these magnetic jewelry clasp. No jeweler is needed, simply clasp one magnet to each end of your bracelet or necklace and never struggle with clasps again.

Magnetic jewelry clasp simple instruction:

1. Bring them near.
2. Magnets connect.
3. Twist and lock.

13 August 2008

Mesothelioma and Peritoneal Mesothelioma

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Mesothelioma is a form of cancer that is almost always caused by previous exposure to asbestos. In this disease, malignant cells develop in the mesothelium, a protective lining that covers most of the body's internal organs. Its most common site is the pleura (outer lining of the lungs and chest cavity), but it may also occur in the peritoneum (the lining of the abdominal cavity) or the pericardium (a sac that surrounds the heart).

Most people who develop mesothelioma have worked on jobs where they inhaled asbestos particles, or they have been exposed to asbestos dust and fibre in other ways, such as by washing the clothes of a family member who worked with asbestos. Unlike lung cancer, there is no association between mesothelioma and smoking. Compensation via asbestos funds or lawsuits is an important issue in mesothelioma.

The symptoms of mesothelioma include shortness of breath due to pleural effusion (fluid between the lung and the chest wall) or chest wall pain, and general symptoms such as weight loss. The diagnosis can be made with chest X-rays and a CT scan, and confirmed with a biopsy (tissue sample) and microscopic examination. A thoracoscopy (inserting a tube with a camera into the chest) can be used to take biopsies. It allows the introduction of substances such as talc to obliterate the pleural space (called pleurodesis), which prevents more fluid from accumulating and pressing on the lung. Despite treatment with chemotherapy, radiation therapy or sometimes surgery, the disease carries a poor prognosis. Research about screening tests for the early detection of mesothelioma is ongoing.

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Peritoneal Mesothelioma Information

Peritoneal Mesothelioma is a type of cancer that affects the peritoneum of the human abdominal cavity. Hence, this medical condition is also called as abdominal mesothelioma.

But before seeing more about peritoneal mesothelioma, let us first take a look at the classifications and functions of the peritoneum membrane.

Peritoneum is classified into visceral and parietal peritoneum. The visceral peritoneum envelops the abdominal organs and forms the periphery of the intestinal tract. On the other hand, parietal peritoneum covers the abdominal cavity. The purpose
of these layers is to protect the internal organs and to secrete a lubricating fluid that eases the movement of internal organs in the abdominal cavity.

Causes of Peritoneal Mesothelioma

Even though not a definitive explanation, it is widely considered that asbestos is the main cause for peritoneal mesothelioma. According to medical experts, in two ways asbestos dust could reach the intestine lining one through involuntary ingestion during working long hours and days amid asbestos, and secondly, through the lungs while breathing and hence along the lymph nodes to the peritoneal cavity. Either way, it is injurious to the human body, and may invariably lead to this cancerous condition if exposed to for a longer period of time.

Symptoms of Peritoneal Mesothelioma

Peritoneal mesothelioma, like the other forms of mesothelioma, shows a very long latency period and it wont be until 20-30 years since the asbestos-exposure days before any typical symptoms becomes apparent. But by then it will be too late to check the disease or provide any constructive medication or treatment. Further, a delay in diagnosing the disease can happen due to the fact that most of the symptoms of mesothelioma is not-specific and may resemble that of some other common and less serious diseases. For example, the common mesothelioma symptoms include anemia, fever, weight loss, abdominal pain, and bowel obstruction, and it is highly likely that the doctor initially may consider other options than contemplating cancer.
Therefore, the patient telling the doctor about any previous asbestos exposure in the first one-to-one interaction itself is very crucial, and that helps the doctor to think of a possible mesothelioma threat even before considering other
possibilities.

Treatments

Once the disease has been diagnosed, the doctor recommends the treatments based on several factors such as the extent of the damage, age and medical history of the person and overall health. The traditional treatments for mesothelioma include surgery if the tumor has spread out and is beyond radiation-curable radiation therapy (external and internal radiation),and chemotherapy, which includes using a pill or needle to insert anti-carcinogen drugs into the body.

With the advancement in science and technology, newer treatment techniques have been introduced, and some of it is looking promising as well.

Intraoperative photodynamic therapy is one such newer method that uses special drugs and light to destroy cancer cells. This method is used to study the earlier phases of mesothelioma in the chest.

Further, Immunotherapy is a way of boosting the immunity of ones own body against the spread of cancer. Also, recently, researches have found that Gene Therapy is effective in correcting the faulty genes causing mesothelioma. But these two methods are still in the clinical trials and are yet to be implemented in hospitals.

Even though a wide range of treatments are available for mesothelioma, clinical experiences reveals that none of this alone is capable of checking the disease effectively.

Article Source: http://www.articlesnatch.com

About the Author:
Christian Louis. Webmaster of several sites around the internet. Copy and paste the below link into your browser to learn more about mesothelioma http://www.online-mesothelioma-information.com


New FRAUD strategies - Keyboard...

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PLEASE BECAREFUL WHENEVER YOU'RE USINGA PC ATA PUBLIC

PLACE ( Like INTERNET CAFES. ETC ).

CHECK THE BACK OF THE PC AND SEE IF THE DEVICE BELOW IS THERE
IF SO..DO NOT USE IT !!

New storing device fits at the end of the keyboard cable connecting to the PC specialized to save all typed keys in it.

Mostly could be used in net cafes, exhibitions, hotels and airports, therefore be careful especially the people who use the internet in these places to enter their bank accounts online or any other important sites.

After you enter the bank account and leave the PC it will be easy to open your account again as all what you have typed has been saved in the Black device.

Therefore, you should check the PC for any suspicious piece behind it before using the net in public places for important sites.

Please send this to all who you know to guard them against this fraud.

Just About Laser Hair Removal Treatment

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Hair removal describes any method of removing hair, especially from the human body.

  • Depilation affects the part of the hair above the surface of the skin. The most common form of depilation is shaving. Another popular option is the use of chemical depilatories, which work by breaking the disulfide bonds that link the protein chains that give hair its strength, making the hair disintegrate.
  • Epilation removal of the entire hair, including the part below the skin and is therefore longer-lasting. Some individuals may use waxing, sugaring, epilation devices, lasers, threading, intense pulsed light or electrology. Hair is also sometimes removed by plucking with tweezers.

Laser hair removal

Epilation by laser was performed experimentally for about 20 years before it became commercially available in the mid 1990s. Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) epilators, though technically not a laser, use xenon flash lamps that emit full spectrum light. Laser and light-based methods, sometimes called phototricholysis or photoepilation, are now most commonly referred to collectively as "laser hair removal". One of the first published articles describing laser hair removal was authored by the group at Massachusetts General Hospital in 1998. The efficacy of laser hair removal is now generally accepted in the dermatology community, and laser hair removal is widely practiced. Many reviews of laser hair removal methods, safety, and efficacy have been published in the dermatology literature

What You Need To Know Before Decide To Get Laser Hair Removal Treatment

Today, there is no one knows about laser hair removal treatment, especially patients who have problem of exceed unwanted hair on some part of the body. As we all know that laser hair removal is one of the advanced treatment that many patients today would want to get in order to have very effective and permanent results. However, there are some other information that you need to know before you decide to get this kind of treatment such as type of skins that suitable and can be cured by laser, type of laser beam that currently popular for patients or any kind of side effects that may occur after the treatment.

The following article presents the very latest information on laser hair removal, which could give you some useful idea about laser hair removal treatment before you actually go to the clinic or hospital.. If you have a particular interest in laser hair removal by using laser treatment, then this informative article is required reading. The information about laser hair removal presented here will do one of two things: either it will reinforce what you know about laser hair removal or it will teach you something new. Both are good outcomes.

One of the fact that many people interested in and always ask before they decide to get laser hair removal treatment is which part of the body that can be cured by laser treatment. This question always been asked by patients. In fact, it can be said that laser hair removal is a treatment, which permanently eliminates unwanted hair permanently and it can be used with any part of the body which we can see the external physical condition of the skin. However, there might be some different part of the body between men and women patients who want to take laser hair removal treatment. For example, women patients want to have their underarms, legs, abdomen and genitals for laser treatment, while men patients prefer to have their back, shoulders and chest cured by laser. However, we can see that the common part of the body that found in both men and women patients are leg and abdomen.

However, in recent years, there is one another part of the body that has become very popular among these patients, facial area. Since the facial area is very sensitive and we found in rare case in the past that patient want to get rid of hair on facial area according to the reason mentioned above. But today as the laser technology provide special type of laser which can get rid of hair on facial area without pain, so there are many of patients want to have facial laser hair removal treatment, which is quite a sensitive area.

However, there are other topics that you may need to know before get laser hair removal treatment, as mentioned earlier, please keep yourself reading all other information after reading this article and you will be ensured that you will get the most benefit of it. It never hurts to be well-informed with the latest on laser hair removal. Compare what you've learned here to future articles so that you can stay alert to changes in this area.

About the Author

Ratta Nasarn:For article about hair loss prevention tips, please visit Health and Fitness articles site, a popular site providing great insights about health and fitness.

Published At: www.Isnare.com

06 August 2008

Be careful when you eat steam fish at the restaurants

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Just posting an email from a friend,


"Dear friends,

Just want to share a little bit of the sad story of my uncle in Kuantan that happened in the Lemon Grass Thai Cuisine, next to the Grand City Hotel at Jalan Beserah, Kuantan, last Monday night at 8pm .

My uncle was having dinner with 2 of his friends, they ordered the steam fish and the waiter/waitress put some *liquid gel *(not candles) underneath the fish for heat up. This thing suddenly exploded and caused my uncle to be injured in his ear, face, arm, and thank God that he was wearing glasses (or else he would have been blinded). The restaurant manager was not responsible enough even to visit my uncle since this accident happened. We'll have to try to find ways to help my Uncle to claim some compensation as he might not be able to work for at least 6 months. I'm not trying to condemn the restaurant but just want you all to be extra careful next time when ordering - steamed food - safer that they take away the 'fire' below. "

Recipe : Soup And Stew