27 August 2007

PETAI

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I recieved an email about PETAI! Read it and eat it!

*Little did you know ...... after reading THIS, you'll NEVER look at petai in the same way again!

*Petai contains three natural sugars -sucrose, fructose and glucose.
Combined with fiber, petai gives an instant, sustained and substantial boost of energy. Research has proved that just two servings of petai provide
enough energy for a strenuous 90-minute workout. No wonder petai is the number one fruit with the world's leading athletes. But energy isn't the
only way petai can help us keep fit. It can also help overcome or prevent a substantial number of illnesses and conditions, making it a must to add to
our daily diet.

*Depression:
According to a recent survey undertaken by MIND among people suffering from depression, many felt much better after eating petai. This is because
petai contain tryptophan, a type of protein that the body converts into serotonin, known to make you relax, improve your mood and generally make you
feel happier.

*PMS(premenstrual syndrome):
Forget the pills - eat petai. The vitamin B6 it contains regulates blood glucose levels, which can affect your mood.

*Anaemia:
High in iron, petai can stimulate the production of haemoglobin in the blood and so helps in cases of anaemia. *

*Blood Pressure:
This unique tropical fruit is extremely high in potassium yet low in salt, makng it perfect to beat blood pressure. So much so, the US Food and Drug
Administration has just allowed the petai industry to make official claims for the fruit's ability to reduce the risk of blood pressure and
stroke.

*Brain Power:
200 students at a Twickenham (Middlesex) school were helped through their exams this year by eating petai at breakfast, break, and lunch in a bid to
boost their brain power. Research has shown that the potassium-packed fruit can assist learning by making pupils more alert.

*Constipation:

High in fiber, including petai in the diet can help restore normal bowel action, helping to overcome the problem without resorting to laxatives.

*Hangovers:
One of the quickest ways of curing a hangover is to make a petai milkshake, sweetened with honey. The petai calms the stomach and, with the help of
the honey, builds up depleted blood sugar levels, while the milk soothes and re-hydrates your system. *


*Heartburn:

Petai has a natural antacid effect in the body, so if you suffer from heartburn, try eating petai for soothing relief.

*Morning Sickness:

Snacking on petai between meals helps to keep blood sugar levels up and avoid morning sickness.

*Mosquito bites:
Before reaching for the insect bite cream, try rubbing the affected area with the inside of the petai skin. Many people find it amazingly
successful at reducing swelling and irritation.

*Nerves:
Petai is high in B vitamins that help calm the nervous system.

*Overweight:
Studies at the Institute of Psychology in Austria found pressure at work leads to gorging on comfort food like chocolate and crisps. Looking at 5,000
hospital patients, researchers found the most obese were more likely to be in high-pressure jobs. The report concluded that, to avoid panic-induced
food cravings, we need to control our blood sugar levels by snacking on high carbohydrate foods every two hours to keep levels steady .

Ulcers:
Petai is used as the dietary food against intestinal disorders because of its soft texture and smoothness. It is the only raw fruit that can be
eaten without distress in over-chronicler cases. It also neutralizes over-acidity and reduces irritation by coating the lining of the stomach.


*Temperature control:

Many other cultures see petai as a "cooling" fruit that can lower both the physical and emotional temperature of expectant mothers. In hoiland, for
example, pregnant women eat petai to ensure their baby is born with a cool temperature.

*Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) :
Petai can help SAD sufferers because they contain the natural mood enhancer, tryptophan.

*Smoking:
Petai can also help people trying to give up smoking. The B6, B12 they contain, as well as the potassium and magnesium found in them, help the
body recover from the effects of nicotine withdrawal.

*Stress:
Potassium is a vital mineral, which helps normalize the heartbeat,sends oxygen to the brain and regulates your body's water balance. When we are
stressed, our metabolic rate rises, thereby reducing our potassium levels. These can be rebalanced with the help of a high-potassium petai snack.

*Strokes:
According to research in "The New England Journal of Medicine," eating petai as part of a regular diet can cut the risk of death by strokes by as
much as 40%".

*Warts:
Those keen on natural alternatives swear that if you want to kill off a wart, take a piece of petai and place it on the wart. Carefully hold the
petai in place with a plaster or surgical tape!

*So, as you can see, petai really is a natural remedy for many ills.
When you compare it to an apple, it has four times the protein, twice the carbohydrates, three times the phosphorus, five times the vitamin A
and iron, and twice the other vitamins and minerals. It is also rich in potassium and is one of the best value foods around. So maybe its time to
change that well-known phrase so that we say, "A Petai a day keeps the doctor away".

PM Dr.Aminuddin AHK Dept.of Physiology
Medical faculty of UKM Kuala Lumpur

23 August 2007

FOOD POISONING

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Food poisoning is an acute gastroenteritis caused by the consumption of a food material or a drink which contains the pathogenic micro organism or their toxins or poisonous chemicals.Food poisoning is common in hostels,hotels,communal feedings, and festivel seasons.

A group of persons will be affected with same type of symptoms ,and they give a history of consumption of a common food before few hours.

Types of food poisoning

1) Bacterial food poisoning:

Here the micro organisms called bacteria are responsible.The food material may contain the pathogenic bacteriae or their toxin and will be ingested along with the food.

2) Non bacterial food poisoning:

Due to the presence of toxic chemicals like fertilizers,insectisides,heavy metals and ect.

Since bacterial food poisoning is common it is discussed here.

Bacterial food poisoning:

All bacteria are not harmful.There are some pathogenic bacteria which secrete toxins and cause clinical manifestations.These organisms enter the human body through food articles or drinks.

How food poisoning occures:

1) Presence of bacteria in the water.

2) The raw materials for the food may contain toxins.

3) Premises where the food is prepared may contain micro organisms or toxins.

4) Food handlers may have some infectious diseases.

5) Some animals like dogs,rats may contaminate the food.

6) If prepared food is kept in the room temperature for a long time and heated again can make a chance for food poisoning.

7) Purposely some body mixing toxins in the food.


Some common bacterial food poisonings.


1) Salmonella food poisoning:

There are three different varieties of salmonella bacteria.(salmonella typhimurium,salmonella cholera suis,salmonella enteritidis) These bacteria are present in milk, milk products and eggs. Symptoms of this food poisoning include nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. Fever is also common.

2) Botulism:

This is the dangerous type of food poisoning caused by clostridium botulinum. The spores of these organisms are seen in the soil and enters the human body through pickles and canned fish ect.Compared to other food poisonings here vomiting and diarrhoea are rare Mainly the nervous system is affected.The symptoms starts with double vision,numbness with weakness.Later there will be paralysis with cardiac and respiratory failure ending in death.

3) Staphylococcal food poisoning:

It is caused by staphylo coccus aureus. These organisms usually cause skin troubles like boils and eruptions.It causes mastitis in cow.Through the milk and milk products it enders and causes gastroenteritis.There will be vomiting,abdominal cramps with diarrhoea.

4) Closteridium food poisoning:

This is caused by closteridium perfringens.They are present in stool,soil and water. They enter the body through,meat,meat dishes and egg ect.If food articles are cooked and kept in room temperature for a long time and heated again before eating can result this food poisoning.Symptoms include vomiting ,diarrhoea and abdominal cramps.

5) Bacillus cereus:

The spores of these organisms can survive cooking and causes enteritis. Diarrhoea and vomiting is common in this infection.


How to investigate food poisoning?

1) Examine each and every person affected.

2) Water sample should be tested.

3) Kitchen, store room and food samples should be examined.

4) The cook and food handlers should be questioned and examined.

5) Samples of vomitus and stool of all victims should be tested to identify the bacteria.


How to prevent food poisoning:-

1) Only purified water should be used.

2) Hygiene should be maintained by all persons keeping contact with food.

3) Workers should use masks, cap and gloves during cooking and serving.

4) Sick individuals should not come in contact with food materials.

5) Kitchen and premises should be neat and clean.

5) Vessels should be washed with soap and hot water.

6) Should not keep the prepared food for a long time in room temperature.

7) All food materials should be kept in closed containers.

8) Animals like dog, cat, rat ect should not come in contact with food materials.

9) Vegetables should be washed before cooking.

10) Meat should be fresh and should be purchased from recognised slaughter house.

NAILS IN HEALTH AND DISEASE

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The nails are present at the end of each finger tip on the dorsal surface.The main function of nail is protection and it also helps for a firm grip for holding articles.It consists of a strong relatively flexible keratinous nail plate originating from the nail matrix. Under the nail plate there is a soft tissue called nail bed.Between the skin and nail plate there is a nail fold or cuticle.Normal healthy nail is slight pink in colour and the surface is convex from side to side.Finger nails grow 1 cm in three months and toe nails take 24 months for the same.

Importance of nails in disease diagnosis:

The colour ,appearance,shape and nature of the nails give some information about the general health and hygiene of a person . Nails are examined as a routine by all doctors to get some clues about underlying diseases.Just looking at nails we can makeout the hygiene of a person.The abnormal nail may be congenital or due to some diseases.The cause for changes in the nail extend from simple reasons to life threatening diseases.Hence the examination by a doctor is essential for diagnosis .Some abnormal findings with probable causes are discussed here for general awareness.

1) Hygiene:-

We can make out an unhygienic nail very easily .Deposition of dirt under the distal end of nail plate can make a chance for ingestion of pathogens while eating.If nail cutting is not done properly it can result in worm troubles in children.When the worms crawl in the anal orifice children will scratch which lodges the ova of worms under the nails and will be taken in while eating.Prominent nail can also complicate a skin disease by habitual scratching.Sharp nails in small kids cause small wounds when they do feet kicking or hand waving.

2) Colour of the nails:-

a) Nails become pale in anaemia.

b) Opaque white discolouration(leuconychia) is seen in chronic renal failure and nephrotic syndrome.

c) Whitening is also seen in hypoalbuminaemia as in cirrhosis and kidney disorders.

d) Drugs like sulpha group,anti malarial and antibiotics ect can produce discolouration in the nails.

e) Fungal infection causes black discolouration.

f) In pseudomonas infection nails become black or green.

g) Nail bed infarction occures in vasculitis especially in SLE and polyarteritis.

h) Red dots are seen in nails due to splinter haemorrhages in subacute bacterial endo carditis, rheumatoid arthritis, trauma, collagen vascular diseases.

i) Blunt injury produces haemorrhage and causes blue/black discolouration.

j) Nails become brown in kidney diseases and in decreased adrenal activity.

k) In wilsons disease blue colour in semicircle appears in the nail.

l) When the blood supply decreases nail become yellow .In jaundice and psoriasis also nail become yellowish.

m) In yellow nail syndrome all nails become yellowish with pleural effusion.


3) Shape of nails:-


a) Clubbing: Here tissues at the base of nails are thickened and the angle between the nail base and the skin is obliterated. The nail becomes more convex and the finger tip becomes bulbous and looks like an end of a drumstick. When the condition becomes worse the nail looks like a parrot beak.

Causes of clubbing:-

Congenital Injuries

Severe chronic cyanosis

Lung diseases like empyema,bronchiactesis,carcinoma of bronchus and pulmonary tuberculosis.
Abdominal diseases like crohn's disease,polyposis of colon,ulcerative colitis,liver cirrhosis ect...

Heart diseases like fallot's tetralogy,subacute bacterial endocarditis and ect..

b) Koilonychia:-

Here the nails become concave like a spoon.This condition is seen in iron deficiency anaemia.In this condition the nails become thin,soft and brittle.The normal convexity will be replaced by concavity.

c) Longitudinal ridging is seen in raynaud's disease.

d) Cuticle becomes ragged in dermatomyositis.

e) Nail fold telangiectasia is a sign in dermatomyositis ,systemic sclerosis and SLE.


4) Structure and consistancy:-


a) Fungal infection of nail causes discolouration,deformity,hypertrophy and abnormal brittleness.

b) Thimble pitting of nail is charecteristic of psoriasis ,acute eczema and alopecia aereata.

c) The inflamation of cuticle or nail fold is called paronychia.

d) Onycholysis is the seperation of nail bed seen in psoriasis,infection and after taking tetracyclines.

e) Destruction of nail is seen in lichen planus,epidermolysis bullosa.

f) Missing nail is seen in nail patella syndrome.It is a hereditary disease.

g) Nails become brittle in raynauds disease and gangrene.

h) Falling of nail is seen in fungal infection,psoriasis and thyroid diseases.

5) Growth:-

Reduction in blood supply affects the growth of nails. Nail growth is also affected in severe ilness. when the disease disappears the growth starts again resulting in formation of transverse ridges.These lines are called Beau's lines and are healpful to date the onset of illness.

Recipe : Soup And Stew